AngiographyAngiography is a Diagnostic Test done under Fluoroscopy to determine the blockage in the Coronary or Peripheral Arteries. A radio-opaque agent is injected an the body and fluoroscope takes running images of the flow of that agent to determine the blockages. It is a 5-10 minute procedure done under Local Anesthesia.
Balloon angioplasty of the coronary artery, or PercutaneousTransluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), was introduced in the late 1970's. PTCA is a non-surgical procedure that relieves narrowing and obstruction of the arteries to the muscle of the heart (coronary arteries). This allows more blood and oxygen to be delivered to the heart muscle. Percutaneous coronary intervention is accomplished with a small balloon catheter inserted into an artery in the groin or arm, and advanced to the narrowing in the coronary artery. The balloon is then inflated to enlarge the narrowing in the artery. A stent is also now inserted the same way as the Balloon Catheter and expanded to the walls of the artery. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI or PTCA) can relieve chest pain of angina, improve the prognosis of individuals with unstable angina, and minimize or stop a heart attack without having the patient undergo Open Heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Time Taken : 1-2 hours or more depending on condition and number of arteries to be opened.
Duration of Hospital Stay: 1-3 days after procedure. Heart Valve SurgeryThere are four valves in your heart:
Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace diseased heart valves.
Blood that flows between different chambers of your heart must flow through a heart valve.
Blood that flows out of your heart into large arteries must flow through a heart valve.
These valves open up enough so that blood can flow through.
They then close, keeping blood from flowing backward.
Time Taken: 3-4 hours Duration of Hospital Stay: 1 week Pace Maker Implantation(PPI)
A Pace Maker is implanted on the upper portion of the chest with its leads going in various chambers of heart. This is done to correct various kinds of Arrhythmias such as Brady (Slow Heart Rate) and Tachy (Very High Heart Rate) Arrhythmias.
A Cardiac Pace Maker is a battery operated programmable electronic device, which is designed to deliver pulse to the heart at a programmed rate, thereby maintaining a healthy heart rhythm on those occasions when the heart rate is too low or too high.
Time Taken: 1-3 hours depending on kind of device implanted
Duration of Hospital Stay: Normally 2-4 days post implant. Heart Transplant
A Heart Transplant is done a patient with end stage heart failure or very severe Coronary Artery Disease. A brain dead donor or recently deceased person's heart is removed and implanted in to the patient after doing several blood and tissue matching to ensure least rejections.
There is a large waiting period for the Heart Transplants and the donors are very few. The concept of organ donation after death (cadaver donor) is picking up in India and will still take some more years that the relatives of the deceased would voluntarily come forward for donation to save many lives.
Time Taken: Not fixed,
Duration of Hospital Stay: Not Fixed